Intelligence Augmentation coming for Individual, Business, and Family

Just returning from HICSS conference, where one of the keynotes was on augmented intelligence….  got me thinking about augmented intelligence for individuals, businesses, and families – three important types of service system entities.

To see where I am coming from, this Politico article is a worthwhile careful read:

The Real Future of Work

…these perspectives surprised me:

“It was also clear from the Katz-Krueger data that the shift to contingent work wasn’t driven by the rise of the sharing economy. Just 0.5 percent of workers are in the sharing economy, accounting for at most 10 percent of the labor market shift over the past 10 years. In other words, for all the concerns about Uber and other sharing economy companies using independent contractors to skirt state and federal labor laws, the shift toward these workplace arrangements predates those companies. They’re followers, not leaders.

“Congress didn’t create similar workplace protections for independent contractors because they were considered to effectively be their own small business, setting their own hours and responsibilities, providing their own benefits and determining their own economic outcomes. More independence came with fewer social protections, a trade-off that many Americans support. According to a 2015 Government Accountability Office report, independent contractors are slightly more likely to be satisfied with their jobs than full-time employees, and fewer than 10 percent said they would prefer a different type of employment.”

“If the workplace is changing so much, would it be possible to invent a new kind of worker? One solution that has begun to arise among labor experts is to create a third, hybrid worker classification—something between an employee and a contractor, offering protections to people, like Uber drivers, who might not be “employees” but work chiefly for one company. But this argument has already started to break down along partisan lines. Republicans tend to support it as overdue acknowledgment that many workers in the modern workplace don’t fit neatly into the employee or contractor box. Democrats are wary of creating a category that might let employers shift even more employees into less-stable work arrangements.”

Like the above read, which shows which category of workers is growing fastest – I still think “why” is not clearly understood, my hunch is there is a wealth effect happening at the extended family-level due to costs dropping from technology deflation, but I could be wrong.  I think the most vulnerable in society could be those without large “extended families” living near to them.   Not sure what data would show this, since “extended family” does not have to be blood relatives – it is “a network of people who care about and support each other as they make smart/wise service exchanges,” but that is my hunch just looking around and thinking about the situation the most people in the world are in…  The individual is probably not the right unit of analysis for worker policy anymore, maybe it never has been.  Augmented intelligence for extended families is a good area for study I think.

Thanks to Bill Daul for sending the pointer to the Politico article.

At HICSS conference one of my favorite presentations was about simulating service systems entities following Service-Dominant logic principles.  Abstractly one can think about the actors as individuals, businesses, or families learning one of three skills for surviving (operant resources) – two skills involve gathering resources from nature (the environment) and one of the skills involves gathering resources through trade/exchange (the social network).  See paper by Fujita, Vaughan, and Vargo:


Augmented intelligence may work best for entities that use a service-dominant architect.

Thinking about a service-dominant architecture for businesses was another interesting HICSS paper:


We also need service-dominant architecture for individuals and families.


Service-dominant architecture for individuals and families will depend on cognitive assistants, evolving on our smartphones and home devices, which brings us to this HICSS paper:

We need better data collection and simulation tools to inform policy development.  The early stage simulation above is a good step towards tools that can help understand the evolving ecology of service system entities, with their capabilities and constraints, rights and responsibilities.   The three skills (operant resources) that it begins to model are all exploitation-oriented from the perspective of March’s exploitation-exploration capabilities of learning systems (all organizations are learning systems).   So to add a fourth skill (operant resoure) to the SD logic simulator, it would be interesting to think about a skill associated with exploration that can create new types of resources, either finding them in nature or finding them in social networks.   See this article to understand exploitation-exploration in organizational learning:

Wanted: AI Challenge Leaderboards in Education

…will be great if you can attend the AI Workshop in Helsinki March 14th:

Also, keep me posted if you see any AI Challenge Leaderboards related to education:

China Medical Entrance Exam AI Challenge:
Japan Tokyo U Entrance Exam AI Challenge:

Delighted if you can help me find more, better AI Challenge Leaderboard/League Table examples.

Leaderboards or League Tables are a type of standing/ranking mechanism for entities with capabilities:

Leaderboards are appearing for more and more AI capabilities – see Question Answering Leaderboard example here:

Daniel Pakkala (VTT) and my IBM team are building an AI Progress Benchmark Roadmap based on Leaderboards (download from here):

CFA – Frontiers in Service (Deadline Feb 1)

Frontiers in Service Conference 2018

NOTE!! Deadline for abstracts is February 1, 2018

2018 Frontiers in Service Conference 

Call for Abstracts

The Frontiers in Service Conference is the world’s leading annual conference on service research. It is co-sponsored annually by the AMA Service SIG and the INFORMS Service Science Section.

In 2018, the 27th Annual Frontiers in Service Conference will be hosted by Texas State University in Austin, Texas, September 6-9, 2018. The main conference sessions and events will occur within the Hilton Austin Hotel, which is just one block away from Austin’s famed 6th Street Entertainment District.

The 2018 Frontiers in Service Conference will explore a wide variety of service topics, including service marketing, service management, service operations, service design, service engineering, service science, and service IT.

You are invited, as a service academic or practitioner, to submit a 450-word abstract ( for possible presentation at the conference. The Frontiers in Service Conference routinely attracts submissions from over 40 countries.

Case studies by business practitioners are encouraged, and a “Best Practitioner Presentation” will be awarded at the conference.

The average number of attendees is around 300 scholars and practitioners. Fewer than half of the submitted abstracts are accepted for presentations.

Abstracts may focus on any service topic, including (but not limited to) the topics below:

Analytics and Service

Big Data and Service

Customer Relationship Management

Digital Service & Collaborative Economy

E-Service & E-Government

Healthcare Service

Internet of Everything and Service

IT as a Service

Public Sector Service

Service Design

Service Operations

Service Management

Service Marketing

Service Engineering

Service Productivity

Service Innovation


Service Science

Service at the “Bottom of the Pyramid”

Social Networks and Service

Smart Service Systems

Technology-based Service (Apps)

Theoretical Perspectives on Service

Transformative Service Research

For more information, please contact us at

Website –
Raymond P. Fisk
Professor and Chair
Department of Marketing
McCoy College of Business Administration
Texas State University
601 University Drive
San Marcos, Texas 78666
Work Phone: (512) 245-9614
Work Fax: (512) 245-7475
Cell Phone: (512) 618-0985
Private E-Mail:
Skype Name: rayfisk

Opentech AI Workshop – Helsinki, Finland March 14, 2018

Daniel Pakkala (VTT) and I are planning an Opentech AI Workshop at IBM Finland HQ on March 14th, 2018.

Start End Activity Details Coming Soon
8:00 8:30 Registration
8:30 9:00 Welcome
9:00 10:00 Keynote1
10:00 10:30 Break1
10:30 12:00 Panel1
12:00 13:00 Lunch
13:00 14:00 Panel2
14:00 15:00 Panel3
15:00 15:30 Break2
15:30 16:30 Keynote2
16:30 17:00 Next Steps


FYI: On the long-shot that you will be in Finland then, or have a colleague there we should invite, please let us know.  About 100 of us will be exploring the growing set of open source AI Challenge Leaderboards, unveiling some analysis of industry by industry leaderboards, healthcare, education, retail, energy, etc. – and exploring the architecture/roadmap for “solving AI” from narrow to broad, from tool, to assistant, to collaborator, to coach, to mediator in smarter/wiser service systems – see:

Finally, best wishes to you both for a creative and productive 2018!

More soon and see posting here as well…


Contact: Jim Spohrer <>, Pakkala Daniel <>

What is Opentech AI?  Read the blog here:

Good reads: Artificial Intelligence Augmentation and Partner Technologies

(1) Artificial Intelligence Augmentation

Carter, S., & Nielsen, M. (2017). Using Artificial Intelligence to Augment Human Intelligence: By creating user interfaces which let us work with the representations inside machine learning models, we can give people new tools for reasoning. Distill.

“In the 1950s a different vision of what computers are for began to develop. That vision was crystallized in 1962, when Douglas Engelbart proposed that computers could be used as a way of augmenting human intellect. In this view, computers weren’t primarily tools for solving number-crunching problems. Rather, they were real-time interactive systems, with rich inputs and outputs, that humans could work with to support and expand their own problem-solving process. This vision of intelligence augmentation (IA) deeply influenced many others, including researchers such as Alan Kay at Xerox PARC, entrepreneurs such as Steve Jobs at Apple, and led to many of the key ideas of modern computing systems. Its ideas have also deeply influenced digital art and music, and fields such as interaction design, data visualization, computational creativity, and human-computer interaction.”

“Research on IA has often been in competition with research on artificial intelligence (AI): competition for funding, competition for the interest of talented researchers. Although there has always been overlap between the fields, IA has typically focused on building systems which put humans and machines to work together, while AI has focused on complete outsourcing of intellectual tasks to machines. In particular, problems in AI are often framed in terms of matching or surpassing human performance: beating humans at chess or Go; learning to recognize speech and images or translating language as well as humans; and so on.”

“This essay describes a new field, emerging today out of a synthesis of AI and IA. For this field, we suggest the name artificial intelligence augmentation (AIA): the use of AI systems to help develop new methods for intelligence augmentation. This new field introduces important new fundamental questions, questions not associated to either parent field. We believe the principles and systems of AIA will be radically different to most existing systems.”

“Our essay begins with a survey of recent technical work hinting at artificial intelligence augmentation, including work on generative interfaces – that is, interfaces which can be used to explore and visualize generative machine learning models. Such interfaces develop a kind of cartography of generative models, ways for humans to explore and make meaning from those models, and to incorporate what those models “know” into their creative work.”

This paper demonstrates the almost “magical” ability of AI to generate images, and other context, that would require skilled people a great deal of time to draw/create.  Will be interesting when things progress from content generation to game generation – I suspect it will start as “really bad” versions of existing games – see: (this is a great and fun game – a creative “twist” on real chess, but in some ways perhaps more exciting than real chess)

(2) Partner Technologies

McGee, K., & Hedborg, J. (2004). Partner Technologies: an alternative to technology masters & servants. In Proc. COSIGN.:

“When it comes to the design of intelligent technologies intended to empower people, much of it is guided by two central metaphors: technologies as servants or as masters. Servant technologies can be empowering because they reduce or remove work that people find difficult, dirty, or dangerous; master technologies can be empowering because they instruct, inform, remind, cajole, nag, or otherwise force people to do things which are important – but which, for whatever reasons, people do not (or cannot) do without this assistance.”

“For many kinds of activities and contexts these guiding metaphors do indeed seem useful. But there are activities where a dynamic, creative partnership among equals seems like the more appropriate model of empowerment – as in the case of musical co-improvisation by jazz groups, where particular collections of individuals mutually inspire and support each other.  Not only do good partnerships seem to help people attain or sustain powerful engagement in their current activities, in some cases they seem to enable people to successfully enter new activities.”

(3) Intelligence Cognitive Assistants (ICA) Workshop

Requires registration but some great presentations on this topic here:

Thanks for pointers to these papers from:

(1) Don Norman,

(2) Mattias Arvola,

AI Headlines

A wide range of AI headlines in the popular press are pretty misleading…. designed for eyeballs and knee jerks, and not brains and thoughtful discussion. For example, in the headline below “without any help” …

Here is a roadmap to “AI Solved” status based on back of the envelope calculations of amount of data required and number of multiples required – at reasonable price points:

AI Solved for IA purposes is about 2036-2040 – unlikely any sooner – in spite of wonderful deep learning progress on pattern recognition tasks in last 5 years.

IA = Intelligence Augmentation, the real goal of AI

2015 Pattern Recognition Speech: URL:
2015 Pattern Recognition Images: URL:
2015 Patten Recognition Translation: URL:
2018 Video Understanding Actions: URL:
> Also UCF101
2018 Video Understanding Context: URL:
2018 Video Understanding DeepVideo: URL:
2021 Memory Declarative: URL:
>Also Allen AI Kaggle Science Challenge
2024 Reasoning Deduction: URL:
2027: Social Interaction Scripts: URL:
2030: Fluent Conversation Speech Acts: URL:
2030: Fluent Conversation Intentions: URL:
2030: Fluent Conversation Alexa Prize: URL:
2033: Assistant & Collaborator Summarization: URL:
2033: Assistant & Collaborator Debate: URL:
2036: Coach & Mediator General AI: URL:
2036: Coach & Mediator Negotiation: URL:
Part of the reason it will take this long is that for AI to be good at IA, is AI will have to be responsible for “institutional facts” to be symbiotic with a person in our culture.
Also, read Roger Schank’s four classics for the progression required for cognitive systems:
Dynamic Memory –


This just in from Jochen Wirtz

Dear Colleagues and Friends,

I have a few exciting announcements:

1) Submit a paper to the LaLonde Service Conference – you can attend it just before the SERVSIG Conference in Paris in June 2018.

2) Get a free desk review copy of the new Essentials in Services Marketing, 3rd ed.

3) Download the paper on Cost-Effective Service Excellence (with Valarie Zeithaml, published online first in JAMS).

4) See the Winning in Service Markets Series which offers books on specific topics suitable for executive education.

5) Attend the Strategic Service Management Program with Wolfgang Ulaga, Sheryl Kimes and me in Singapore.

More details can be found below.  Do be in touch if you are interested in any of these topics.

Going forward, I will only send out 1 or max 2 emails per annum.  If you like more regular updates, follow me on LinkedIn, Facebook, Twitter, Google Scholar and/or ResarchGate.

With best wishes,


LaLonde Service Conference

15th International Research Conference in Service Management
10-13 June 2018 – La Londe les Maures, France

We are happy to announce that the 15th La Londe Service Conference will take place from June 10 to June 13, 2018.

The La Londe Service Conference is a unique scientific meeting. You will have ample time (20 min for your presentation plus 25 min for Q&A) to discuss your paper with a qualified audience. And you will have a chance to enjoy the magnificent scenery of the South of France, the beautiful Mediterranean seashore environment, and a boat trip to Porquerolles island.
Register and send us your paper by January 31st 2018. For additional information, visit the conference website

The scientific committee consists of:
> Mike Brady, Florida State University – Human Resources & Marketing Interactions Track
> Joy Field, Boston College – Service Operations Track
> Pierre Eiglier, Aix-Marseille Graduate School of Management – IAE – Strategy and Economics Track
> Jochen Wirtz, National University of Singapore – Marketing Track

P.S. In 2018, the La Londe Service Conference will be just before the SERVSIG conference in Paris.  La Londe conference will end on June, 13th at noon, and the SERVSIG conference will start on June, 14th with an opening reception in the evening. A fast train can take you from Toulon to Paris in less than 4 hours just in time for the opening reception.

Essentials in Services Marketing, 3rd

The new 3rd edition has been published. For further information and a sample chapter see:

The book comes with the full instructor resources, incl test bank and PPT deck.   If you would like to receive a desk review copy, please “reply to all” [or email Yajnaseni ( and Kasia  (  cc me (], and let us have your mailing address (no PO boxes please) and a phone number for the courier service company.

Cost-Effective Service Excellence

This research project has kept me busy for many years, which makes me so delighted that this paper with Valarie Zeithaml has now been published in the Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science.

Synopsis: Service excellence and cost effectiveness are seen to be in conflict, yet there are organizations that achieve both. This article analyses how ten organizations did it and identifies three strategic options for achieving cost-effective service excellence (CESE). Interestingly, these options can be applied in isolation or in certain combinations. Read the full article here:

The electronic supplementary materials are available here:–_JAMS_2017_Wirtz_Zeithaml_Online_Supplementary_Material  

This is an “open access” article that does not require copy right clearance for use in class or distribution. That is, you can use it free of charge in your classes.

Winning in Service Markets Series

“Your books are too thick, we don’t want to read so much!”  That’s the feedback I get a lot.  Well, I’m in marking and use feedback for new product development.  I am delighted to launch a series of short books (typically 50 to 80 pages) at an attractive price ($4.95 each) that focus on specific topics.

Vol 1 to 13 of the Winning in Service Market Series are published.  Further information and sample pages are provided at: .

Winning in Service Markets comprises of the following volumes:
Vol 1: Understanding Service Consumers
Vol 2: Positioning Services in Competitive Markets
Vol 3: Developing Service Products and Brands
Vol 4: Pricing Services and Revenue Management
Vol 5: Service Marketing Communications
Vol 6: Designing Customer Service Processes
Vol 7: Balancing Capacity and Demand in Service Operations
Vol 8: Crafting the Service Environment
Vol 9: Managing People for Service Advantage
Vol 10: Managing Customer Relationships and Building Loyalty
Vol 11: Designing Complaint Handling and Service Recovery Strategies
Vol 12: Service Quality and Productivity Management
Vol 13: Building A World-Class Service Organization

It was fun doing this series – it is basically as subset of the “mother book” Winning in Service Markets, which can be previewed here:

Strategic Service Management Program

The Strategic Service Management Program with Wolfgang Ulaga, Sheryl Kimes and me in Singapore has just been finalized.  Many of my alumni asked whether we can have an in-depth service management course; I am happy to now announce the launch of this new program.

The 5-day program is designed for senior leaders in organizations that want to differentiate on service. Academic colleagues are most welcome to attend the program, too.  Key topics include:

·         How to capture value in the service economy
·         Why and how to use service to defy commoditisation
·         Create customer loyalty and engagement: key strategies & tools
·         Deliver & scale world-class service throughout the customer journey
·         Effectively diagnose and close service quality gaps
·         Make a successful transition from products to solutions: challenges and strategies
·         Leveraging big data and analytics for service revenue and profit growth
·         How to effectively price services
·         Delivering cost-effective service excellence: strategies to become a leader in both customer satisfaction and productivity
·         How to achieve rapid improvements in service culture to drive innovation and differentiation

For more details see:

For enquiries, contact Sarah Chan at

I am sorry for potential cross-posting. If you do not want to
receive further emails, just reply with “remove”.  Thank you.

Professor Jochen WIRTZ, Ph.D , Vice Dean, Graduate Studies, NUS Business School
Tel : +65 6516 3871 | Email :  | Mochtar Riady Building, Level 4, 15 Kent Ridge Drive, Singapore 119245

Among the World’s Best!  The NUS MBA  Ranked #26;  The NUS Executive MBA  Ranked #17;  UCLA – NUS Executive MBA  Ranked #6;  Financial Times’ Global MBA/EMBA Rankings 2016/2017

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First Global Conference on Creating Value – Leicester, UK May 23-24, 2018

Now organising the First Global conference on Creating Value at Leicester in the UK, May 23-24 2018 a few days before the EMAC conference in Glasgow starting May 29.
In addition the Journal of Creating Value is proposing a special issue on the Role of Technology in creating/destroying value for November 2018. I am looking for a guest editor and request you to recommend potential editors.
Thanks so much,
Gautam Mahajan, 

President, Customer Value Foundation and Inter-Link India

Founder Editor, Journal of Creating Value

New Delhi 110065 +91 98100 60368  

Twitter @ValueCreationJ  Blogs:

Author of Value Creation, Total Customer Value Management, Customer Value Investment